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This contest also saw the inclusion of storage area network SAN servers as a target. On April 6—8, , the Pwn2Own contest took place in Austin and virtually. Zoom Messenger was compromised on the second day of the contest with a zero-click exploit. NET Standard. Pwn2Own returned to Vancouver on May , , to celebrate the 15th anniversary  of the contest. Also demonstrated were successful demonstrations against the Mozilla Firefox and Apple Safari web browsers.
Researchers from the Synacktiv Team were able to remotely start the windshield wipers, open the trunk, and flash the headlights of the vehicle. All six of these exploits used unique bugs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Computer hacking contest. This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved April 1, Vancouver: The Register. Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on January 25, Digital Vaccine Laboratories.
Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 11 April Good poke at Vista UAC”. Zero Day Initiative. Archived from the original on March 18, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on Retrieved Tom’s Hardware. Purch Group. Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved March 10, April 16, Archived from the original on November 20, The Guardian.
April 8, May 13, Archived from the original on March 22, March 30, Archived from the original on January 19, The Register. Hewlett Packard Enterprise. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 16 November IT Pro. March 27, Archived from the original on April 12, March 28, Archived from the original on April 17, Archived from the original on April 4, Ars Technica. June 10, Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on 13 April Apple Inc.
Retrieved 4 May Opera Software ASA. Where provided, caller identification and similar telecommunications functions shall be visible and audible. Where ICT provides real-time video functionality, the quality of the video shall be sufficient to support communication using sign language. ICT equipment or systems with two-way voice communication that do not themselves provide TTY functionality shall conform to ICT shall provide a microphone capable of being turned on and off to allow the user to intermix speech with TTY use.
Where provided, voice mail, auto-attendant, interactive voice response, and caller identification systems shall be usable with a TTY. Where ICT displays or processes video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide closed caption processing technology that conforms to Players and displays shall decode closed caption data and support display of captions. Where ICT displays or processes video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide audio description processing technology conforming to ICT other than digital television tuners shall provide audio description processing.
Where ICT displays video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide user controls for closed captions and audio descriptions conforming to Where ICT provides operable parts for program selection, ICT shall also provide operable parts for the selection of audio description. The requirements of Chapter 5 shall apply to software where required by Chapter 2 Scoping Requirements , Chapter 2 Scoping Requirements , and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the Revised Standards or Revised Guidelines.
Software shall interoperate with assistive technology and shall conform to Software with platform features defined in platform documentation as accessibility features shall conform to Platform software shall provide user control over platform features that are defined in the platform documentation as accessibility features. Software shall not disrupt platform features that are defined in the platform documentation as accessibility features.
Platform software and software tools that are provided by the platform developer shall provide a documented set of accessibility services that support applications running on the platform to interoperate with assistive technology and shall conform to Applications that are also platforms shall expose the underlying platform accessibility services or implement other documented accessibility services.
The object role, state s , properties, boundary, name, and description shall be programmatically determinable. States and properties that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.
If an object is in a data table, the occupied rows and columns, and any headers associated with those rows or columns, shall be programmatically determinable.
Any current value s , and any set or range of allowable values associated with an object, shall be programmatically determinable. Values that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.
Any relationship that a component has as a label for another component, or of being labeled by another component, shall be programmatically determinable. Any hierarchical parent-child relationship that a component has as a container for, or being contained by, another component shall be programmatically determinable. The content of text objects, text attributes, and the boundary of text rendered to the screen, shall be programmatically determinable. Text that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.
A list of all actions that can be executed on an object shall be programmatically determinable. Applications shall allow assistive technology to programmatically execute available actions on objects. Applications shall expose information and mechanisms necessary to track focus, text insertion point, and selection attributes of user interface components.
Focus, text insertion point, and selection attributes that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through the use of assistive technology. Applications shall permit user preferences from platform settings for color, contrast, font type, font size, and focus cursor. Where an application provides an alternative user interface that functions as assistive technology, the application shall use platform and other industry standard accessibility services.
Where user controls are provided for volume adjustment, ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of captions at the same menu level as the user controls for volume or program selection. Where user controls are provided for program selection, ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of audio descriptions at the same menu level as the user controls for volume or program selection. Where an application is an authoring tool, the application shall conform to to the extent that information required for accessibility is supported by the destination format.
Authoring tools shall permit authors the option of overriding information required for accessibility. Authoring tools shall, when converting content from one format to another or saving content in multiple formats, preserve the information required for accessibility to the extent that the information is supported by the destination format.
The technical requirements in Chapter 6 shall apply to ICT support documentation and services where required by Chapter 2 Scoping Requirements , Chapter 2 Scoping Requirements , and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the Revised Standards or Revised Guidelines. Documentation shall list and explain how to use the accessibility and compatibility features required by Chapters 4 and 5.
Documentation shall include accessibility features that are built-in and accessibility features that provide compatibility with assistive technology. Where support documentation is only provided in non-electronic formats, alternate formats usable by individuals with disabilities shall be provided upon request.
ICT support services including, but not limited to, help desks, call centers, training services, and automated self-service technical support, shall conform to ICT support services shall include information on the accessibility and compatibility features required by Support services shall be provided directly to the user or through a referral to a point of contact.
Such ICT support services shall accommodate the communication needs of individuals with disabilities. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register has approved these standards for incorporation by reference into this part in accordance with 5 U.
Copies of the referenced standards may be inspected at the U. Box , Santa Monica, CA — Box , Los Alamitos, CA — Series E. Overall Network Operation, Telephone Service, Service Operation and Human Factors—International operation – Numbering plan of the international telephone service, Arrangement of digits, letters and symbols on telephones and other devices that can be used for gaining access to a telephone network, February Series G.
Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Internet Engineering Task Force. Definition of the Opus Codec, September , J. Valin, Mozilla Corporation, K. Vos, Skype Technologies S. Terriberry, Mozilla Corporation. Redesignated and amended at 82 FR , Jan. The purpose of this part is to implement section of the Rehabilitation Act of , as amended 29 U.
Section requires that when Federal agencies develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology, Federal employees with disabilities have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by Federal employees who are not individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.
Section also requires that individuals with disabilities, who are members of the public seeking information or services from a Federal agency, have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to that provided to the public who are not individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.
When developing, procuring, maintaining, or using electronic and information technology, each agency shall ensure that the products comply with the applicable provisions of this part, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.
Agencies cannot claim a product as a whole is not commercially available because no product in the marketplace meets all the standards.
If products are commercially available that meet some but not all of the standards, the agency must procure the product that best meets the standards. Systems which are critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions do not include a system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications. Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed in this part provided they result in substantially equivalent or greater access to and use of a product for people with disabilities.
Applications also shall not disrupt or disable activated features of any operating system that are identified as accessibility features where the application programming interface for those accessibility features has been documented by the manufacturer of the operating system and is available to the product developer.
The focus shall be programmatically exposed so that assistive technology can track focus and focus changes. When an image represents a program element, the information conveyed by the image must also be available in text. The minimum information that shall be made available is text content, text input caret location, and text attributes.
The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes. Paragraphs l , m , n , o , and p of this section are different from WCAG 1.
Web pages that conform to WCAG 1. WCAG 1. Microphones shall be capable of being turned on and off to allow the user to intermix speech with TTY use. For incremental volume control, at least one intermediate step of 12 dB of gain shall be provided.
Technologies which use encoding, signal compression, format transformation, or similar techniques shall not remove information needed for access or shall restore it upon delivery. The force required to activate controls and keys shall be 5 lbs. Key repeat rate shall be adjustable to 2 seconds per character. As soon as practicable, but not later than July 1, , widescreen digital television DTV displays measuring at least 7.
Personal headsets for private listening are not assistive technology. The product must provide the ability to interrupt, pause, and restart the audio at anytime.
Where the ambient noise level of the environment is above 45 dB, a volume gain of at least 20 dB above the ambient level shall be user selectable.
Published in the Federal Register on January 18, and amended on March 23, SUMMARY: We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Access Board or Board , are revising and updating, in a single rulemaking, our standards for electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by Federal agencies covered by section of the Rehabilitation Act of , as well as our guidelines for telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment covered by Section of the Communications Act of The revisions and updates to the section based standards and section based guidelines are intended to ensure that information and communication technology covered by the respective statutes is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
Compliance with the section based guidelines is not required until the guidelines are adopted by the Federal Communications Commission. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in the final rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of March 20, Telephone: — voice or — TTY. Telephone: — voice or — TTY E-mail addresses: access-board. In this final rule, the Access Board is updating its existing Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards under section of the Rehabilitation Act of , ” Standards” , as well as our Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines under Section of the Communications Act of ” Guidelines”.
Given the passage of nearly two decades since their issuance, the existing Standards and Guidelines are in need of a “refresh” in several important respects. This final rule is intended to, among other things, address advances in information and communication technology that have occurred since the guidelines and standards were issued in and respectively, harmonize with accessibility standards developed by standards organizations worldwide in recent years, and ensure consistency with the Board’s regulations that have been promulgated since the late s.
The Revised Standards and Guidelines support the access needs of individuals with disabilities, while also taking into account the costs of providing accessible information and communication technology to Federal agencies, as well as manufacturers of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment.
The final rule also reflects a significantly revamped organizational structure relative to the existing standards and guidelines. Appendix A provides general application and scoping for Section , while Appendix B does likewise for Section Appendix C contains seven separate chapters setting forth the functional performance criteria and technical accessibility standards that apply to both covered and covered ICT.
These chapters are, generally speaking, broken down by functional area e. Lastly, Appendix D republishes the existing Standards, which, as discussed below, may be needed to evaluate Section covered existing legacy ICT under the safe harbor provision.
Additionally, the term “information and communication technology” ICT is used widely throughout this preamble. Unless otherwise noted, it is intended to broadly encompass electronic and information technology covered by Section , as well as telecommunications products, interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP products, and Customer Premises Equipment CPE covered by Section Examples of ICT include computers, information kiosks and transaction machines, telecommunications equipment, multifunction office machines, software, Web sites, and electronic documents.
Section of the Rehabilitation Act of hereafter, “Section ” , as amended, mandates that Federal agencies “develop, procure, maintain, or use” ICT in a manner that ensures Federal employees with disabilities have comparable access to, and use of, such information and data relative to other Federal employees, unless doing so would impose an undue burden.
Section also requires Federal agencies to ensure that members of the public with disabilities have comparable access to publicly-available information and services unless doing so would impose an undue burden on the agency. In accordance with section a 2 A , the Access Board must publish standards that define electronic and information technology along with the technical and functional performance criteria necessary for accessibility, and periodically review and amend the standards as appropriate.
When the Board revises its existing Standards whether to keep up with technological changes or otherwise , Section mandates that, within six months, both the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council FAR Council and Federal agencies incorporate these revised standards into their respective acquisition regulations and procurement policies and directives.
Thus, with respect to procurement-related matters, the Access Board’s Standards are not self-enforcing; rather, these standards take legal effect when adopted by the FAR Council. Section of the Communications Act hereafter, “Section ” , requires telecommunications equipment and services to be accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities, where readily achievable.
In determining whether an access feature is readily achievable, the Federal Communications Commission FCC , which has exclusive implementation and enforcement authority under Section , has directed telecommunications equipment manufacturers and service providers to weigh the nature and cost of that feature against the individual company’s overall financial resources, taking into account such factors as the type, size, and nature of its business operation.
Section tasks the Access Board, in conjunction with the FCC, with the development of guidelines for the accessibility of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment, as well as their periodic review and update. The FCC, however, has exclusive authority under Section to issue implementing regulations and carry out enforcement activities. Moreover, when issuing implementing regulations, the FCC is not bound to adopt the Access Board’s guidelines as its own or to use them as minimum requirements.
The Revised Standards and Guidelines replace the current product-based regulatory approach with an approach based on ICT functions. The revised technical requirements, which are organized along the lines of ICT functionality, provide requirements to ensure that covered hardware, software, electronic content, and support documentation and services are accessible to people with disabilities.
In addition, the revised requirements include functional performance criteria, which are outcome-based provisions that apply in two limited instances: when the technical requirements do not address one or more features of ICT or when evaluation of an alternative design or technology is needed under equivalent facilitation.
Some of the key provisions and updates reflected in the Revised Standards and Guidelines relative to the existing standards and guidelines include:. Technological advances over the past two decades have resulted in the widespread use of multifunction devices that called into question the ongoing utility of the product-by-product approach used in the Board’s existing Standards and Guidelines.
Consequently, one of the primary purposes of the final rule is to replace the current product-based approach with requirements based on functionality, and, thereby, ensure that accessibility for people with disabilities keeps pace with advances in ICT.
To ensure that compliance under both laws, to the maximum extent possible, can be measured against a common set of technical requirements, the implementing regulations have been consolidated into a single part: 36 CFR part As discussed below, this is a new organizational format for the Standards and Guidelines that mirrors the formatting of other standards and guidelines issued by the Access Board over the past decade.
Appendix A applies only to Section covered ICT and consists of Chapter 1, which sets forth general application and administration provisions, while Chapter 2 contains scoping requirements which, in turn, prescribe which ICT — and, in some cases, how many — must comply with the technical specifications. Appendix B, which applies to covered ICT only, is organized similarly with Chapter 1 setting forth general application and administration provisions and Chapter 2 containing scoping requirements.
Appendix C sets forth technical specifications that apply equally to ICT covered under Sections or Appendix C includes five chapters, each of which with the exception of the final chapter address a separate ICT functional area. Lastly, in Appendix D, the existing Standards are republished in full albeit with a revised section numbering system for reference when evaluating Section covered existing legacy ICT under the “safe harbor” provision.
See discussion infra Section IV. For Section covered ICT, all covered Web and non-Web content and software — including, for example, Web sites, intranets, word processing documents, portable document format documents, and project management software — is required, with a few specific exceptions, to conform to WCAG 2.
By applying a single set of requirements to Web sites, electronic documents, and software, the revised requirements adapt the existing Standards to reflect the newer multifunction technologies e. For Section covered ICT, electronic content and software that is integral to the use of telecommunications and customer premise equipment is required to conform to WCAG 2.
There are several exceptions related to non-Web documents and software. From the outset, one of the Access Board’s primary goals in this rulemaking has been to increase harmonization with international standards relating to ICT accessibility that have been developed worldwide over the past decade. Some of these standards such as WCAG 2. For other standards such as EN , which is the European accessibility standard for public ICT procurement , harmonization comes in the form of ensuring that the relevant accessibility specifications in such standard and the final rule can both be met simultaneously without conflict.
Harmonization with international standards and guidelines creates a larger marketplace for accessibility solutions, thereby attracting more offerings and increasing the likelihood of commercial availability of accessible ICT options. The Revised Standards specify that all types of public-facing content, as well as nine categories of non-public-facing content that communicate agency official business, have to be accessible, with “content” encompassing all forms of electronic information and data.
The existing standards require Federal agencies to make electronic information and data accessible, but do not delineate clearly the scope of covered information and data. As a result, document accessibility has been inconsistent across Federal agencies.
By focusing on public-facing content and certain types of agency official communications that are not public facing, the revised requirements bring needed clarity to the scope of electronic content covered by the Standards and, thereby, help Federal agencies make electronic content accessible more consistently. The existing standards require ICT to be compatible with assistive technology — that is, hardware or software that increases or maintains functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities e.
However, in the past the existing requirement resulted in ambiguity of application. The ensuing confusion led, in some cases, to unnecessary delay in procurements intended to provide reasonable accommodations to employees under Section , creating a hardship for both agencies and their employees with disabilities.
The final rule provides more specificity about how operating systems, software development toolkits, and software applications should interact with assistive technology. The final rule also specifically exempts assistive technology from the interoperability provisions. The Board expects the final rule to improve software interoperability with assistive technology, allowing users better access to the functionalities that ICT products provide.
Federal agencies will have one year from publication of this final rule to comply with the Revised Standards. This extended period for compliance is responsive to some agencies’ concerns about the time it will take them to make ICT compliant with the Revised Standards. In addition, the Revised Standards include a “safe harbor” provision for existing i.
Under this safe harbor, unaltered, existing ICT including content that complies with the existing Standards need not be modified or upgraded to conform to the Revised Standards. This safe harbor applies on an element-by-element basis in that each component or portion of existing ICT is assessed separately.
Corresponding definitions have also been added for “existing ICT” and “alteration. Notably, the extended compliance date and safe harbor provision apply only to Section covered ICT; these provisions do not apply to telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment covered by Section Since compliance with the Revised Guidelines is not required unless and until they are adopted by the FCC, matters addressed in these two provisions fall within the commission’s province.
Consistent with the obligation under Executive Orders and that Federal agencies promulgate regulations only upon a reasoned determination that benefits justify costs, the final rule has been evaluated from a benefit-cost perspective in a final regulatory impact analysis Final RIA prepared by the Board’s consulting economic firm.
The focus of the Final RIA is to define and, where possible, quantify and monetize the potential incremental benefits and costs of the Revised Standards and Guidelines. We summarize its methodology and results below. To estimate likely incremental compliance costs attributable to the final rule, the Final RIA estimates, quantifies, and monetizes costs in the following broad areas: 1 costs to Federal agencies and contractors related to policy development, employee training, development of accessible ICT, evaluation of ICT, and creation of accessible electronic documents; 2 costs to Federal agencies of ensuring that speech-output enabled hardware with closed functionality has braille instructions e.
On the benefits side, the Final RIA estimates likely incremental benefits by monetizing the value of three categories of benefits expected to accrue from the Revised Standards: a increased productivity of Federal employees with certain disabilities who are expected to benefit from improved ICT accessibility; b time saved by members of the public with certain disabilities when using more accessible Federal Web sites; and c reduced phone calls to Federal agencies as members of the public with certain disabilities shift their inquiries and transactions online due to improved accessibility of Federal Web sites.
The Final RIA, for analytical purposes, defines the beneficiary population as persons with vision, hearing, speech, learning, and intellectual disabilities, as well as those with manipulation, reach, or strength limitations. The Final RIA does not formally quantify or monetize benefits accruing from the Revised Guidelines due to insufficient data and methodological constraints.
Table 1 below summarizes the results from the Final RIA with respect to the likely monetized benefits and costs, on an annualized basis, from the Revised Standards and Guidelines.
All monetized benefits and costs are incremental to the applicable baseline, and were estimated for a year time horizon starting in since the final rule requires Federal agencies to comply one year after its publication and converted to annualized values using discount rates of 7 and 3 percent.
Three scenarios of incremental benefits and costs are presented using alternative parameters that are assumptions-based. These scenarios include: a low net benefit scenario using parameters which results in lower benefits and higher costs , an expected scenario consisting of expected values for assumed parameters , and a high net benefit scenario using parameters which results in higher benefits and lower costs.
While the Final RIA monetizes likely incremental benefits and costs attributable to the final rule, this represents only part of the regulatory picture. Today, though ICT is now woven into the very fabric of everyday life, millions of Americans with disabilities often find themselves unable to use — or use effectively — computers, mobile devices, Federal agency Web sites, or electronic content.
The Board’s existing standards and guidelines are greatly in need of a “refresh” to keep up with technological changes over the past fifteen years. The Board expects this final rule to be a major step toward ensuring that ICT is more accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities — both in the Federal workplace and society generally.
Indeed, much — if not most — of the significant benefits expected to accrue from the final rule are difficult, if not impossible, to quantify, including: greater social equality, human dignity, and fairness.
Each of these values is explicitly recognized by Executive Order as important qualitative considerations in regulatory analyses. Moreover, American companies that manufacture telecommunications equipment and ICT-related products will likely derive significant benefits from the Access Board’s concerted efforts to harmonize the accessibility requirements in the Revised Standards and Guidelines with voluntary consensus standards.
Given the relative lack of existing national and globally-recognized standards for accessibility of mobile technologies, telecommunications equipment manufacturers will, we believe, greatly benefit from harmonization of the Revised Guidelines with consensus standards. Similar benefits will likely accrue more generally to manufacturers of all ICT-related products as a result of harmonization.
It is also equally important to note that some potentially substantial incremental costs arising from the final rule are not evaluated in the Final RIA, either because such costs could not be quantified or monetized due to lack of data or for other methodological reasons or are inherently qualitative.
For example, due to lack of information, the Final RIA does not assess the cost impact of new or revised requirements in the Revised Guidelines on computer and telecommunications equipment manufacturers. The Access Board issued the existing Guidelines for telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment in Two years later, in , the Board published the existing Standards.
In this preamble, all citations to 36 CFR part refer to the existing Guidelines in force since , while all citations to 36 CFR Part refer to the existing Standards in force since The existing Standards require Federal agencies to ensure that persons with disabilities — namely, Federal employees with disabilities and members of the public with disabilities — have comparable access to, and use of, electronic and information technology regardless of the type of medium absent a showing of undue burden.
Among other things, these standards: define key terms such as “electronic and information technology” and “undue burden” ; establish technical requirements and functional performance criteria for covered electronic and information technologies; require agencies to document undue burden determinations when procuring covered products; and mandate accessibility of support documentation and services.
Generally speaking, the existing Standards take a product-based regulatory approach in that technical requirements for electronic and information technology are grouped by product type: software applications and operating systems; Web-based intranet and Internet information and applications; telecommunications products; self-contained, closed products; and desktop and portable computers.
The existing Guidelines require manufacturers of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment to ensure that new and substantially upgraded existing equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities when readily achievable. The existing guidelines, as with the Standards, define key terms such as “telecommunications equipment” and “readily achievable” and establish technical requirements for covered equipment, software, and support documentation.
These guidelines also require manufacturers of covered equipment to consider inclusion of individuals with disabilities in their respective processes for product design, testing, trials, or market research. In the years following our initial promulgation of the existing Standards and Guidelines, technology has continued to evolve at a rapid pace. Pursuant to our statutory mandate, the Access Board deemed it necessary and appropriate to review and update the existing Standards and Guidelines in order to make them consistent with one another and reflective of technological changes.
See Advisory Committee Report, U. Access Board Apr. This TEITAC Report provided a set of recommended updates to the existing Standards and Guidelines, which, the committee noted, were intended to balance two competing considerations: the need for clear and specific standards that facilitate compliance, and the recognition that static standards “consisting of design specification[s] and fixed checklists” would tend to “stifle innovation” and “delay the availability of technology advancements to people with disabilities.
To address these considerations, the TEITAC Advisory Committee recommended that the Access Board jettison its existing product-based regulatory approach in favor of technical requirements to achieve accessibility based on ICT functions or features. The Committee also noted the importance of harmonizing with international standards to both spur development of accessible ICT products and reduce manufacturers’ costs in the global market.
All told, the TEITAC Report provided a comprehensive recommended set of technical requirements applicable to a broad range of ICT functions and features, including: closed functionality; hardware with and without speech output; user interfaces; electronic content; processing and display of captions and audio description; RTT; authoring tools; and, product support documentation and services.
While the majority of the proposed requirements in the draft rule were not substantively changed from the existing Standards and Guidelines, there were some notable proposed substantive revisions. Two of the most significant were the proposals to require that Federal agencies make electronic content of specified official communications accessible, and to harmonize with WCAG 2.
In the draft rule, the proposed standards and guidelines shared a common set of functional performance criteria Chapter 2 and technical design criteria Chapters , but had separate introductory chapters Chapters 1 and 2 , which outlined the respective scoping, application, and definitions for the revised Standards and Guidelines.
We also received written comments during the comment period. Comments came from industry, Federal and state governments, foreign and domestic companies specializing in information technology, disability advocacy groups, manufacturers of hardware and software, trade associations, institutions of higher education, research and trade organizations, accessibility consultants, assistive technology industry and related organizations, and individuals.
In general, commenters agreed with our approach to addressing the accessibility of ICT through functionality rather than discrete product types. For example, commenters noted confusion by virtue of the fact that some chapters focused on functional features of accessibility while others addressed specific types of technology, or that the meaning of “ICT” seemed to vary depending on the context of the specific chapter. Other commenters opined that deviations from WCAG 2.
By the following year, in , the Access Board was poised to invite public comment on a revised version of the draft rule. The Board acknowledged that, based on comments to the ANPRM, the draft rule needed to be reorganized and made more concise.
More importantly, we needed to obtain further comment on major issues and harmonize with the European Commission’s ICT standardization efforts that were already underway at that time. To address comments criticizing the length and organization of the ANPRM as unwieldy, the revised draft rule consolidated and streamlined provisions into six chapters from ten , consolidated advisories, and reduced the page count from close to to less than We also made revisions to improve the clarity of various proposed provisions and ensure a consistent organizational structure throughout this draft rule.
See, e. Additionally, to address commenters’ collective concern that rephrasing of WCAG 2. In issuing the ANPRM, the Access Board also took notice of the standardization work going on in Europe at the time, stating: [T]he Board is interested in harmonizing with standards efforts around the world in a timely way. Accordingly, the Board is now releasing this second Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ANPRM to seek further comment on specific questions and to harmonize with contemporaneous standardization efforts underway by the European Commission.
Comments came from industry, Federal and state governments, foreign and domestic companies specializing in information technology, disability advocacy groups, manufacturers of hardware and software, trade associations and trade organizations, institutions of higher education and research, accessibility consultants, assistive technology industry and related organizations, and individual stakeholders who did not identify with any of these groups.
In general, commenters continued to agree with our approach to address ICT accessibility by focusing on features, rather than discrete product types. Commenters supported the conciseness of the proposed provisions in the ANPRM, and asked for further streamlining where possible. VM groups. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a groups feature that enables the user to organize and control virtual machines collectively, as well as individually.
In addition to basic groups, it is also possible for any VM to be in more than one group, and for groups to be nested in a hierarchy. This means you can have groups of groups. Clean architecture and unprecedented modularity. Oracle VM VirtualBox has an extremely modular design with well-defined internal programming interfaces and a clean separation of client and server code.
This makes it easy to control it from several interfaces at once. For example, you can start a VM simply by clicking on a button in the Oracle VM VirtualBox graphical user interface and then control that machine from the command line, or even remotely. Due to its modular architecture, Oracle VM VirtualBox can also expose its full functionality and configurability through a comprehensive software development kit SDK , which enables integration of Oracle VM VirtualBox with other software systems.
Remote machine display. Instead, the VRDE is plugged directly into the virtualization layer. As a result, it works with guest OSes other than Windows, even in text mode, and does not require application support in the virtual machine either. Extensible RDP authentication. In addition, it includes an easy-to-use SDK which enables you to create arbitrary interfaces for other methods of authentication.
See Section 7. Intel hardware is required. See also Chapter 14, Known Limitations. Linux hosts bit. Includes the following:. See Section 2. However, the formally tested and supported Linux distributions are those for which we offer a dedicated package. Oracle Solaris hosts bit only. The following versions are supported with the restrictions listed in Chapter 14, Known Limitations :. Note that any feature which is marked as experimental is not supported. Feedback and suggestions about such features are welcome.
If you have installed software before, installation should be straightforward. On each host platform, Oracle VM VirtualBox uses the installation method that is most common and easy to use.
If you run into trouble or have special requirements, see Chapter 2, Installation Details for details about the various installation methods. Base package. Extension packs. Additional extension packs can be downloaded which extend the functionality of the Oracle VM VirtualBox base package. The extension pack provides the following added functionality:.
The virtual USB 2. The virtual USB 3. Host webcam passthrough. See Section 9. Disk image encryption with AES algorithm. Cloud integration features. Oracle VM VirtualBox extension packages have a. To install an extension, simply double-click on the package file and a Network Operations Manager window is shown to guide you through the required steps.
To view the extension packs that are currently installed, start the VirtualBox Manager, as shown in Section 1. From the File menu, select Preferences. In the window that displays, go to the Extensions category. This shows you the extensions which are currently installed, and enables you to remove a package or add a new package. Alternatively, you can use the VBoxManage command line. See Section 8. On a Windows host, in the Programs menu, click on the item in the VirtualBox group.
On some Windows platforms, you can also enter VirtualBox in the search box of the Start menu. You may want to drag this item onto your Dock. Alternatively, you can enter VirtualBox in a terminal window. This window is called the VirtualBox Manager. The left pane will later list all your virtual machines.
Since you have not yet created any virtual machines, this list is empty. The Tools button provides access to user tools, such as the Virtual Media Manager. The pane on the right displays the properties of the currently selected virtual machine. Since you do not have any machines yet, the pane displays a welcome message. Click New in the VirtualBox Manager window. A wizard is shown, to guide you through setting up a new virtual machine VM.
On the following pages, the wizard will ask you for the bare minimum of information that is needed to create a VM, in particular:.
For example, Windows 10 with Visio. The Machine Folder is the location where VMs are stored on your computer. The default folder location is shown.
The supported OSes are grouped. If you want to install something very unusual that is not listed, select Other. This is particularly important for bit guests. It is therefore recommended to always set it to the correct value. The amount of memory given here will be taken away from your host machine and presented to the guest OS, which will report this size as the virtual computer’s installed RAM.
Choose this setting carefully. The memory you give to the VM will not be available to your host OS while the VM is running, so do not specify more than you can spare. If you run two VMs at the same time, even more memory will be allocated for the second VM, which may not even be able to start if that memory is not available. On the other hand, you should specify as much as your guest OS and your applications will require to run properly.
A guest OS may require at least 1 or 2 GB of memory to install and boot up. For best performance, more memory than that may be required. If insufficient RAM remains, the system might excessively swap memory to the hard disk, which effectively brings the host system to a standstill. As with the other settings, you can change this setting later, after you have created the VM. There are many and potentially complicated ways in which Oracle VM VirtualBox can provide hard disk space to a VM, see Chapter 5, Virtual Storage , but the most common way is to use a large image file on your physical hard disk, whose contents Oracle VM VirtualBox presents to your VM as if it were a complete hard disk.
This file then represents an entire hard disk, so you can even copy it to another host and use it with another Oracle VM VirtualBox installation. To create a new, empty virtual hard disk, click the Create button. You can pick an existing disk image file. The drop-down list presented in the window lists all disk images which are currently remembered by Oracle VM VirtualBox. These disk images are currently attached to a virtual machine, or have been attached to a virtual machine.
Alternatively, click on the small folder icon next to the drop-down list. In the displayed file dialog, you can click Add to select any disk image file on your host disk.
Click the Create button. This wizard helps you to create a new disk image file in the new virtual machine’s folder. A dynamically allocated file only grows in size when the guest actually stores data on its virtual hard disk.
Therefore, this file is small initially. As the drive is filled with data, the file grows to the specified size. A fixed-size file immediately occupies the file specified, even if only a fraction of that virtual hard disk space is actually in use. While occupying much more space, a fixed-size file incurs less overhead and is therefore slightly faster than a dynamically allocated file. For details about the differences, see Section 5.
But the image file must be large enough to hold the contents of the guest OS and the applications you want to install. For a Windows or Linux guest, you will probably need several gigabytes for any serious use. The limit of the image file size can be changed later, see Section 8. After having selected or created your image file, click Next to go to the next page. Click Create , to create your new virtual machine. The virtual machine is displayed in the list on the left side of the VirtualBox Manager window, with the name that you entered initially.
After becoming familiar with the use of wizards, consider using the Expert Mode available in some wizards. Where available, this is selectable using a button, and speeds up the process of using wizards. Go to the VirtualBox VMs folder in your system user’s home directory. Find the subdirectory of the machine you want to start and double-click on the machine settings file.
This file has a. Starting a virtual machine displays a new window, and the virtual machine which you selected will boot up. Everything which would normally be seen on the virtual system’s monitor is shown in the window. See the screenshot image in Chapter 1, First Steps. In general, you can use the virtual machine as you would use a real computer. There are couple of points worth mentioning however.
This wizard helps you to select an installation medium. Since the VM is created empty, it would otherwise behave just like a real computer with no OS installed. It will do nothing and display an error message that no bootable OS was found. In the wizard’s drop-down list of installation media, select Host Drive with the correct drive letter.
In the case of a Linux host, choose a device file. This will allow your VM to access the media in your host drive, and you can proceed to install from there. If you have downloaded installation media from the Internet in the form of an ISO image file such as with a Linux distribution, you would normally burn this file to an empty CD or DVD and proceed as described above. In this case, the wizard’s drop-down list contains a list of installation media that were previously used with Oracle VM VirtualBox.
If your medium is not in the list, especially if you are using Oracle VM VirtualBox for the first time, click the small folder icon next to the drop-down list to display a standard file dialog. Here you can pick an image file on your host disks.
After completing the choices in the wizard, you will be able to install your OS. If you are running a modern guest OS that can handle such devices, mouse support may work out of the box without the mouse being captured as described below. But unless you are running the VM in full screen mode, your VM needs to share keyboard and mouse with other applications and possibly other VMs on your host.
After installing a guest OS and before you install the Guest Additions, described later, either your VM or the rest of your computer can “own” the keyboard and the mouse. Both cannot own the keyboard and mouse at the same time. You will see a second mouse pointer which is always confined to the limits of the VM window.
You activate the VM by clicking inside it. By default, this is the right Ctrl key on your keyboard. On a Mac host, the default Host key is the left Command key. The current setting for the Host key is always displayed at the bottom right of your VM window.
Your keyboard is owned by the VM if the VM window on your host desktop has the keyboard focus. If you have many windows open in your guest OS, the window that has the focus in your VM is used. This means that if you want to enter text within your VM, click on the title bar of your VM window first.
To release keyboard ownership, press the Host key. As explained above, this is typically the right Ctrl key. For technical reasons it may not be possible for the VM to get all keyboard input even when it does own the keyboard. Your mouse is owned by the VM only after you have clicked in the VM window. The host mouse pointer will disappear, and your mouse will drive the guest’s pointer instead of your normal mouse pointer.
Note that mouse ownership is independent of that of the keyboard. Even after you have clicked on a titlebar to be able to enter text into the VM window, your mouse is not necessarily owned by the VM yet. These tools make VM keyboard and mouse operations much more seamless. Most importantly, the Guest Additions suppress the second “guest” mouse pointer and make your host mouse pointer work directly in the guest.
Some OSes expect certain key combinations to initiate certain procedures. The recipient of these keypresses depends on a number of factors, including the key combination itself. Host OSes reserve certain key combinations for themselves. As the X server intercepts this combination, pressing it will usually restart your host graphical user interface and kill all running programs, including Oracle VM VirtualBox, in the process.
If, instead, you want to send these key combinations to the guest OS in the virtual machine, you will need to use one of the following methods:. Use the items in the Input , Keyboard menu of the virtual machine window. However, the latter setting affects only Linux guests or Oracle Solaris guests.
This menu also includes an option for inserting the Host key combination. Use special key combinations with the Host key, which is normally the right Control key. This is a global setting for all virtual machines and can be found under File , Preferences , Input. A soft keyboard can be used to input key combinations in the guest.
While a virtual machine is running, you can change removable media in the Devices menu of the VM’s window. But as the Settings dialog is disabled while the VM is in the Running or Saved state, the Devices menu saves you from having to shut down and restart the VM every time you want to change media. Using the Devices menu, you can attach the host drive to the guest or select a floppy or DVD image, as described in Section 3. You can resize the VM’s window while that VM is running.
When you do, the window is scaled as follows:. If you have scaled mode enabled, then the virtual machine’s screen will be scaled to the size of the window. This can be useful if you have many machines running and want to have a look at one of them while it is running in the background. Alternatively, it might be useful to enlarge a window if the VM’s output screen is very small, for example because you are running an old OS in it.
The aspect ratio of the guest screen is preserved when resizing the window. To ignore the aspect ratio, press Shift during the resize operation. See Chapter 14, Known Limitations for additional remarks. If you have the Guest Additions installed and they support automatic resizing , the Guest Additions will automatically adjust the screen resolution of the guest OS.
For example, if you are running a Windows guest with a resolution of x pixels and you then resize the VM window to make it pixels wider, the Guest Additions will change the Windows display resolution to x Otherwise, if the window is bigger than the VM’s screen, the screen will be centered. If it is smaller, then scroll bars will be added to the machine window.
When you click on the Close button of your virtual machine window, at the top right of the window, just like you would close any other window on your system, Oracle VM VirtualBox asks you whether you want to save or power off the VM.
Save the machine state: With this option, Oracle VM VirtualBox freezes the virtual machine by completely saving its state to your local disk. When you start the VM again later, you will find that the VM continues exactly where it was left off. All your programs will still be open, and your computer resumes operation. Saving the state of a virtual machine is thus in some ways similar to suspending a laptop computer by closing its lid.
Send the shutdown signal. This will send an ACPI shutdown signal to the virtual machine, which has the same effect as if you had pressed the power button on a real computer. This should trigger a proper shutdown mechanism from within the VM. Power off the machine: With this option, Oracle VM VirtualBox also stops running the virtual machine, but without saving its state. This is equivalent to pulling the power plug on a real computer without shutting it down properly. If you start the machine again after powering it off, your OS will have to reboot completely and may begin a lengthy check of its virtual system disks.
As a result, this should not normally be done, since it can potentially cause data loss or an inconsistent state of the guest system on disk.
As an exception, if your virtual machine has any snapshots, see Section 1. In that case, powering off the machine will not disrupt its state, but any changes made since that snapshot was taken will be lost. The Discard button in the VirtualBox Manager window discards a virtual machine’s saved state. This has the same effect as powering it off, and the same warnings apply.
VM groups enable the user to create ad hoc groups of VMs, and to manage and perform functions on them collectively, as well as individually. Select multiple VMs and select Group from the right-click menu.
This command creates a group “TestGroup” and attaches the VM “vm01” to that group. Detach a VM from the group, and delete the group if empty. For example:. This command detaches all groups from the VM “vm01” and deletes the empty group. This command creates the groups “TestGroup” and “TestGroup2”, if they do not exist, and attaches the VM “vm01” to both of them. With snapshots, you can save a particular state of a virtual machine for later use.
At any later time, you can revert to that state, even though you may have changed the VM considerably since then. A snapshot of a virtual machine is thus similar to a machine in Saved state, but there can be many of them, and these saved states are preserved.
To see the snapshots of a virtual machine, click on the machine name in VirtualBox Manager. Then click the List icon next to the machine name, and select Snapshots. Until you take a snapshot of the machine, the list of snapshots will be empty except for the Current State item, which represents the “now” point in the lifetime of the virtual machine. Take a snapshot.
This makes a copy of the machine’s current state, to which you can go back at any given time later. The snapshots window is shown. Do one of the following:. Click the Take icon. Right-click on the Current State item in the list and select Take. In either case, a window is displayed prompting you for a snapshot name.
This name is purely for reference purposes to help you remember the state of the snapshot. For example, a useful name would be “Fresh installation from scratch, no Guest Additions”, or “Service Pack 3 just installed”.
You can also add a longer text in the Description field. Your new snapshot will then appear in the snapshots list.
Underneath your new snapshot, you will see an item called Current State , signifying that the current state of your VM is a variation based on the snapshot you took earlier. If you later take another snapshot, you will see that they are displayed in sequence, and that each subsequent snapshot is derived from an earlier one.
Oracle VM VirtualBox imposes no limits on the number of snapshots you can take. The only practical limitation is disk space on your host. Each snapshot stores the state of the virtual machine and thus occupies some disk space. Restore a snapshot. In the list of snapshots, right-click on any snapshot you have taken and select Restore. By restoring a snapshot, you go back or forward in time. The current state of the machine is lost, and the machine is restored to the exact state it was in when the snapshot was taken.
Restoring a snapshot will affect the virtual hard drives that are connected to your VM, as the entire state of the virtual hard drive will be reverted as well.
This means also that all files that have been created since the snapshot and all other file changes will be lost. In order to prevent such data loss while still making use of the snapshot feature, it is possible to add a second hard drive in write-through mode using the VBoxManage interface and use it to store your data.
As write-through hard drives are not included in snapshots, they remain unaltered when a machine is reverted. To avoid losing the current state when restoring a snapshot, you can create a new snapshot before the restore operation. By restoring an earlier snapshot and taking more snapshots from there, it is even possible to create a kind of alternate reality and to switch between these different histories of the virtual machine. This can result in a whole tree of virtual machine snapshots, as shown in the screenshot above.
Delete a snapshot. This does not affect the state of the virtual machine, but only releases the files on disk that Oracle VM VirtualBox used to store the snapshot data, thus freeing disk space. To delete a snapshot, right-click on the snapshot name in the snapshots tree and select Delete. Snapshots can be deleted even while a machine is running. Whereas taking and restoring snapshots are fairly quick operations, deleting a snapshot can take a considerable amount of time since large amounts of data may need to be copied between several disk image files.
Temporary disk files may also need large amounts of disk space while the operation is in progress. There are some situations which cannot be handled while a VM is running, and you will get an appropriate message that you need to perform this snapshot deletion when the VM is shut down.
Think of a snapshot as a point in time that you have preserved. More formally, a snapshot consists of the following:. The snapshot contains a complete copy of the VM settings, including the hardware configuration, so that when you restore a snapshot, the VM settings are restored as well. For example, if you changed the hard disk configuration or the VM’s system settings, that change is undone when you restore the snapshot.
The copy of the settings is stored in the machine configuration, an XML text file, and thus occupies very little space. The complete state of all the virtual disks attached to the machine is preserved. Going back to a snapshot means that all changes that had been made to the machine’s disks, file by file and bit by bit, will be undone as well.
Files that were since created will disappear, files that were deleted will be restored, changes to files will be reverted. Strictly speaking, this is only true for virtual hard disks in “normal” mode. You can configure disks to behave differently with snapshots, see Section 5. In technical terms, it is not the virtual disk itself that is restored when a snapshot is restored.
Instead, when a snapshot is taken, Oracle VM VirtualBox creates differencing images which contain only the changes since the snapshot were taken. When the snapshot is restored, Oracle VM VirtualBox throws away that differencing image, thus going back to the previous state.
This is both faster and uses less disk space. For the details, which can be complex, see Section 5. Creating the differencing image as such does not occupy much space on the host disk initially, since the differencing image will initially be empty and grow dynamically later with each write operation to the disk.
The longer you use the machine after having created the snapshot, however, the more the differencing image will grow in size. If you took a snapshot while the machine was running, the memory state of the machine is also saved in the snapshot. This is in the same way that memory can be saved when you close a VM window. When you restore such a snapshot, execution resumes at exactly the point when the snapshot was taken.
The memory state file can be as large as the memory size of the VM and will therefore occupy considerable disk space. When you select a virtual machine from the list in the VirtualBox Manager window, you will see a summary of that machine’s settings on the right. Clicking on Settings displays a window, where you can configure many of the properties of the selected VM.
But be careful when changing VM settings. It is possible to change all VM settings after installing a guest OS, but certain changes might prevent a guest OS from functioning correctly if done after installation.
This is because the Settings dialog enables you to change fundamental characteristics of the virtual machine that is created for your guest OS. For example, the guest OS may not perform well if half of its memory is taken away. As a result, if the Settings button is disabled, shut down the current VM first.
Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a wide range of parameters that can be changed for a virtual machine. The various settings that can be changed in the Settings window are described in detail in Chapter 3, Configuring Virtual Machines. Even more parameters are available when using the VBoxManage command line interface. Removing a VM.
The confirmation dialog enables you to specify whether to only remove the VM from the list of machines or to remove the files associated with the VM. Note that the Remove menu item is disabled while a VM is running.
Moving a VM. Note that the Move menu item is disabled while a VM is running. You can create a full copy or a linked copy of an existing VM. This copy is called a clone. The Clone Virtual Machine wizard guides you through the cloning process. Start the wizard by clicking Clone in the right-click menu of the VirtualBox Manager’s machine list or in the Snapshots view of the selected VM.
Specify a new Name for the clone. You can choose a Path for the cloned virtual machine, otherwise Oracle VM VirtualBox uses the default machines folder. The Clone Type option specifies whether to create a clone linked to the source VM or to create a fully independent clone:.
Full Clone: Copies all dependent disk images to the new VM folder. A full clone can operate fully without the source VM. Linked Clone: Creates new differencing disk images based on the source VM disk images. The Snapshots option specifies whether to create a clone of the current machine state only or of everything.
Everything: Clones the current machine state and all its snapshots. Current Machine State and All Children:. Clones a VM snapshot and all its child snapshots. This is the default setting. This is the best option when both the source VM and the cloned VM must operate on the same network.
The duration of the clone operation depends on the size and number of attached disk images. In addition, the clone operation saves all the differencing disk images of a snapshot. Note that the Clone menu item is disabled while a machine is running. Oracle VM VirtualBox can import and export virtual machines in the following formats:. This is the industry-standard format. Cloud service formats. Export to and import from cloud services such as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure is supported. OVF is a cross-platform standard supported by many virtualization products which enables the creation of ready-made virtual machines that can then be imported into a hypervisor such as Oracle VM VirtualBox.
Using OVF enables packaging of virtual appliances. These are disk images, together with configuration settings that can be distributed easily. This way one can offer complete ready-to-use software packages, including OSes with applications, that need no configuration or installation except for importing into Oracle VM VirtualBox.
In particular, no guarantee is made that Oracle VM VirtualBox supports all appliances created by other virtualization software. For a list of known limitations, see Chapter 14, Known Limitations. They can come in several files, as one or several disk images, typically in the widely-used VMDK format. They also include a textual description file in an XML dialect with an. These files must then reside in the same directory for Oracle VM VirtualBox to be able to import them.
Alternatively, the above files can be packed together into a single archive file, typically with an. OVF cannot describe snapshots that were taken for a virtual machine. As a result, when you export a virtual machine that has snapshots, only the current state of the machine will be exported. The disk images in the export will have a flattened state identical to the current state of the virtual machine.
From the file dialog, go to the file with either the. Click Import to open the Appliance Settings screen. You can change this behavior by using the Primary Group setting for the VM. Base Folder: Specifies the directory on the host in which to store the imported VMs.
You can override the default behavior and preserve the MAC addresses on import. Click Import to import the appliance. Because disk images are large, the VMDK images that are included with virtual appliances are shipped in a compressed format that cannot be used directly by VMs.
So, the images are first unpacked and copied, which might take several minutes. You can use the VBoxManage import command to import an appliance. Select one or more VMs to export, and click Next.
The Appliance Settings screen enables you to select the following settings:. Format: Selects the Open Virtualization Format value for the output files. File: Selects the location in which to store the exported files.
Write Manifest File: Enables you to include a manifest file in the exported archive file. Click Next to show the Virtual System Settings screen. You can edit settings for the virtual appliance. For example, you can change the name of the virtual appliance or add product information, such as vendor details or license text. Click Export to begin the export process. Note that this operation might take several minutes. You can use the VBoxManage export command to export an appliance.
Prepare for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Integration. Section 1. Install the Extension Pack. Create a key pair. Upload the public key of the key pair from your client device to the cloud service. Create a cloud profile. The cloud profile contains resource identifiers for your cloud account, such as your user OCID, and details of your key pair. Your API requests are signed with your private key, and Oracle Cloud Infrastructure uses the public key to verify the authenticity of the request.
You must upload the public key to the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console. Optional Create a. The key pair is usually installed in the. Display the User Settings page. Click Profile , User Settings.
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The interface allows the use of all desktop apps, whether PC or Mac, with a mobile device, with excellent zoom and selection features.
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The manual provides information on how to install Oracle VM VirtualBox and use it to create and configure virtual machines. It is assumed that readers are familiar with Web technologies and have a general understanding of Windows and UNIX platforms.
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. Oracle is fully committed to diversity and inclusion. Oracle recognizes the influence of ethnic and cultural values and is working to remove language from our products and documentation that might be considered insensitive.
While doing so, we are also mindful of the necessity to maintain compatibility with our customers’ existing technologies and the need to ensure continuity of service as Страница offerings and industry standards evolve. Because of these technical constraints, our effort to remove insensitive terms is an ongoing, long-term process.
Oracle VM VirtualBox is a cross-platform virtualization application. What does that mean? Secondly, it extends the capabilities of your existing computer so that it can run multiple OSes, inside multiple virtual machines, at the same time. As an example, you can run Windows and Linux on your Mac, run Windows Server on your Linux server, run Linux on your Windows PC, and so on, all alongside your existing applications.
You нажмите чтобы прочитать больше install and run as many virtual machines as you like. The only practical limits are disk space and memory. Oracle VM VirtualBox is deceptively simple yet also very powerful.
It can run everywhere from small embedded systems or desktop class machines all the way up to datacenter deployments and even Cloud environments. Figure 1. In this User Manual, we will begin simply with a quick introduction to virtualization and how to get your first virtual machine running with the easy-to-use Oracle VM VirtualBox graphical user interface.
Subsequent chapters will go into much more detail covering more powerful tools and features, but fortunately, it is not necessary parallels desktop 14 update summary free read the entire User Manual before you can use Oracle VM VirtualBox.
The techniques and features that Oracle VM VirtualBox provides are useful in the following scenarios:. Running multiple operating systems simultaneously. This way, you can run software written for one OS on another, such as Windows software on Linux or a Mac, without having to reboot to use it.
Easier software installations. Software vendors can use virtual machines to ship entire software configurations. For example, installing a complete mail server solution on a real machine can be a tedious task. With Oracle VM VirtualBox, such a complex setup, often called an appliancecan be packed into a virtual machine. Installing and running a mail server becomes as easy as importing such an appliance into Oracle VM VirtualBox.
Testing and disaster recovery. Once installed, a virtual machine and its virtual hard disks can be considered a /67858.txt that can be arbitrarily frozen, woken up, copied, backed up, and transported between hosts.
On top of that, with the use of another Oracle VM VirtualBox feature called snapshotsone can save a particular state of a virtual machine and revert back to that state, if necessary. This way, one can freely experiment with a computing environment. If something goes wrong, such as problems after installing software or infecting the guest parallels desktop 14 update summary free a virus, you can easily switch back to a previous snapshot and avoid the need of frequent backups and restores.
Any number of snapshots can be created, allowing you to travel back and forward in virtual machine time. You can delete snapshots while a VM is running to reclaim disk space. Infrastructure consolidation. Virtualization can significantly reduce hardware and electricity costs.
Most of the time, computers today only use a fraction of their potential power and run with low average system loads. A lot of hardware resources as well as electricity is thereby wasted. So, instead of running many such physical computers that are only partially used, one can pack many virtual machines onto a few powerful hosts and balance the loads between them. When dealing with virtualization, and also for understanding the following chapters of this documentation, it helps to acquaint oneself with a bit of crucial terminology, especially the following terms:.
Host operating system host OS. See Section 1. There may be platform-specific differences which we will point out where appropriate. Guest operating system guest OS. This is the OS that is running inside the virtual machine. But to achieve near-native performance of the guest code on your machine, we had to go through a lot of optimizations that are specific to certain OSes.
So while your favorite OS may run as a guest, we officially support and optimize for a select few, which include the most common OSes. See Section 3. Virtual machine VM. In other words, you run your guest OS in a VM. Normally, считаю, ativador nero 2016 platinum free оно VM is shown as a window on your computer’s desktop. Depending on which of the various frontends of Oracle VM VirtualBox you use, the VM might be shown in full screen mode or remotely on another computer.
Some parameters describe hardware settings, such as the amount of memory and number parallels desktop 14 update summary free CPUs assigned. Other parameters describe the state information, such as whether the VM is running or saved. See Chapter 8, VBoxManage. Guest Additions. This refers to special software packages which are shipped with Oracle VM VirtualBox but designed to be installed inside a VM to improve performance of the guest OS and to add extra features. See Chapter 4, Guest Additions.
Oracle Parallels desktop 14 update summary free VirtualBox runs on a large number of адрес страницы host operating systems. Oracle VM VirtualBox is a so-called hosted hypervisor, sometimes referred to as a type 2 hypervisor.
Whereas a bare-metal or type 1 hypervisor would run directly on the hardware, Oracle VM VirtualBox requires an existing OS to be installed. It can thus run alongside existing applications on that host. To a very large degree, Oracle VM VirtualBox is functionally identical on all of the host platforms, and the same file and image formats are used.
This enables you to run virtual machines created on one host on another host with a different host OS. For example, you can create a virtual parallels desktop 14 update summary free on Windows and then run it under Linux. In addition, virtual machines can easily be imported and exported using the Open Virtualization Format OVFan industry standard created for this purpose.
You can even import OVFs that were created with a different virtualization software. For users of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure the functionality extends to exporting and importing virtual machines to and from the cloud. This simplifies development of applications and parallels desktop 14 update summary free to the production environment. Guest Additions: shared folders, seamless windows, 3D virtualization. The Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions are software packages which can be installed inside of supported guest systems to improve their performance and to provide additional integration and communication with the host system.
After installing the Guest Additions, a virtual machine will support automatic adjustment of video resolutions, seamless windows, accelerated 3D graphics and more.
In particular, Guest Additions provide for shared folderswhich let you access files on the host system from within a guest machine. See Section 4. Great hardware support. Guest multiprocessing SMP. USB device support. Oracle VM VirtualBox implements a virtual USB controller and enables you to connect arbitrary USB devices to your virtual machines without having to install parallels desktop 14 update summary free drivers on the host.
USB support is not limited to certain device categories. Hardware compatibility. Oracle VM VirtualBox virtualizes parallels desktop 14 update summary free vast array of virtual devices, among them many devices that are typically provided by other virtualization platforms. This enables easy cloning of disk images from real machines and importing of third-party virtual machines into Oracle VM VirtualBox. Full ACPI support.
This enables подробнее на этой странице cloning of disk images from real machines or third-party virtual machines into Oracle VM По ссылке. Parallels desktop 14 update summary free mobile systems running on battery, the guest can thus enable energy saving and notify the user of the remaining power, for example in full screen modes. Multiscreen resolutions. Oracle VM VirtualBox virtual machines support screen resolutions many нажмите для деталей that of a physical screen, allowing them to be spread over a large number of screens parallels desktop 14 update summary free to the host system.
Built-in iSCSI support. This unique feature enables you to connect a virtual machine directly to an iSCSI storage server without going through the host system. The VM accesses the iSCSI target directly without the extra parallels desktop 14 update summary free that is required for virtualizing hard disks in container files. See Section 5. PXE Network boot. Multigeneration branched snapshots. Oracle VM VirtualBox can save arbitrary snapshots of the state of the virtual machine. You can go back in time and revert the virtual machine to any such snapshot and start an alternative VM configuration from there, effectively creating a whole snapshot tree.
You can create and delete snapshots while the virtual machine is running. VM groups. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a groups feature that enables the user to organize and control virtual machines collectively, as well as individually.
In addition to basic groups, it is also possible for any VM to be in more than one group, and for groups to be nested in a hierarchy. This means you can have groups of groups.
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Pwn2Own is a computer hacking contest held annually at the CanSecWest security conference. The first contest in  was conceived and developed by Dragos Ruiu in response to his frustration with Apple Inc. Any conference attendee that could connect to this wireless access point and exploit one of the devices would be able to leave the conference with that laptop.
There was no monetary reward. The vulnerabilities sold to ZDI are made public only after the affected vendor has issued a patch for it. For the rules were changed to a capture-the-flag style competition with a point system,  At and Chrome was successfully exploited for the first time, by regular competitor VUPEN.
Other prizes such as laptops were also given to winning researchers. Winners of the contest receive the device that they exploited and a cash prize. Only certain attacks were allowed and these restrictions were progressively loosened over the three days of the conference. In order to win the 15″ MacBook Pro, contestants would be required to further escalate their privileges to root after gaining access with their initial exploit.
The laptops were not hacked on the first day. When clicked, the link gave Macauley control of the laptop, winning the contest by proxy for Dai Zovi, who gave Macaulay the 15″ MacBook Pro. The contest would demonstrate the widespread insecurity of all software in widespread use by consumers.
Day 2 had browser and Instant messaging attacks included, as well as malicious website attacks with links sent to organizers to be clicked. Their exploit targeted an open-source subcomponent of the Safari browser. After having considerably more success targeting web browsers than any other category of software in , the third Pwn2Own focused on popular browsers used on consumer desktop operating systems.
It added another category of mobile devices which contestants were challenged to hack via many remote attack vectors including email, SMS messages, and website browsing. All browsers were fully patched and in default configurations on the first day of the contest.
As in previous years, the attack surface contest expanded over the three days. On day 2, Adobe Flash, Java, Microsoft. On day 3, other popular third party plugins were included like Adobe Reader.
Multiple winners per target were allowed, but only the first contestant to exploit each laptop would get it. As with the browser contest, the attack surface available to contestants expanded over three days. In order to prove that they were able to successfully compromise the device, contestants had to demonstrate they could collect sensitive data from the mobile device or incur some type of financial loss from the mobile device owner.
Wifi if on by default , Bluetooth if on by default , and radio stack were also in-scope. Wifi was turned on and Bluetooth could be turned on and paired with a nearby headset additional pairing disallowed.
Day 3 allowed one level of user interaction with the default applications. Multiple winners per device were allowed, but only the first contestant to exploit each mobile device would get it along with a one-year phone contract. Concerning outcome, based on the increased interest in competing in , ZDI arranged a random selection to determine which team went first against each target.
He exploited Safari on OS X without the aid of any browser plugins. Nils successfully ran an exploit against Internet Explorer 8 on Windows 7 Beta. Although Miller had already exploited Safari on OS X, Nils exploited this platform again,  then moved on to exploit Firefox successfully. At the time, OS X had Java enabled by default which allowed for reliable exploitation against that platform. However, due to having reported the vulnerabilities to the vendor already, Tinnes’ participation fell outside the rules of the contest and was unable to be rewarded.
Chrome, as well as all of the mobile devices, went unexploited in Pwn2Own The Opera web browser was left out of the contests as a target: The ZDI team argued that Opera had a low market share and that Chrome and Safari are only included “due to their default presence on various mobile platforms”.
However, Opera’s rendering engine, Presto , is present on millions of mobile platforms. The contest took place between March 9 until 11th during the CanSecWest conference in Vancouver. New to the Pwn2Own contest was the fact that a new attack surface was allowed for penetrating mobile phones, specifically over cellphone basebands.
Several teams registered for the desktop browser contest. For the mobile browser category, the following teams registered. During the first day of the competition, Safari and Internet Explorer were defeated by researchers. Safari was version 5. Internet Explorer was a bit version 8 installed on bit Windows 7 Service Pack 1.
This was demonstrated Just as with Safari. The iPhone was running iOS 4. The team of Vincenzo Iozzo, Willem Pinckaers, and Ralf Philipp Weinmann took advantage of a vulnerability in the Blackberry’s WebKit based web browser by visiting their previously prepared webpage. Sam Thomas had been selected to test Firefox, but he withdrew stating that his exploit was not stable. The researchers that had been chosen to test Android and Windows Phone 7 did not show up.
Chrome and Firefox were not hacked. For the rules were changed to a capture-the-flag style competition with a point system. At Pwn2Own , Chrome was successfully exploited for the first time. VUPEN declined to reveal how they escaped the sandbox, saying they would sell the information. Safari on Mac OS X Lion was the only browser left standing at the conclusion of the zero day portion of pwn2own.
Google withdrew from sponsorship of the event because the rules did not require full disclosure of exploits from winners, specifically exploits to break out of a sandboxed environment and demonstrated exploits that did not “win”. Non-Chrome vulnerabilities used were guaranteed to be immediately reported to the appropriate vendor.
In , Google returned as a sponsor and the rules were changed to require full disclosure of exploits and techniques used. French security firm VUPEN has successfully exploited a fully updated Internet Explorer 10 on Microsoft Surface Pro running a bit version of Windows 8 and fully bypassed Protected Mode sandbox without crashing or freezing the browser.
The company used a total of 11 distinct zero-day vulnerabilities. At the contest in March , “each of the winning entries was able to avoid the sandboxing mitigations by leveraging vulnerabilities in the underlying OSs. Google Pixel was not hacked. In , the conference was much smaller and sponsored primarily by Microsoft. China had banned its security researchers from participating in the contest, despite Chinese nationals winning in the past, and banned divulging security vulnerabilities to foreigners.
Nevertheless, certain openings were found in Edge, Safari, Firefox and more. In October , Politico reported that the next edition of Pwn2Own had added industrial control systems.
Also entered was the Oculus Quest virtual reality kit. They did so by hacking into the “patch gap” that meshed older software patched onto other platforms, as the smart screen used an old version of Chromium.
Overall, the contest had 14 winning demonstrations, nine partial wins due to bug collisions, and two failed entries. The spring edition of Pwn2Own occurred on March 18—19, Tesla again returned as a sponsor and had a Model 3 as an available target.
The Zero Day Initiative decided to allow remote participation. This allowed researchers to send their exploits to the program prior to the event. ZDI researchers then ran the exploits from their homes and recorded the screen as well as the Zoom call with the contestant.
ZDI researchers in Toronto ran the event, with others connecting from home. This contest also saw the inclusion of storage area network SAN servers as a target. On April 6—8, , the Pwn2Own contest took place in Austin and virtually. Zoom Messenger was compromised on the second day of the contest with a zero-click exploit. NET Standard. Pwn2Own returned to Vancouver on May , , to celebrate the 15th anniversary  of the contest.
Also demonstrated were successful demonstrations against the Mozilla Firefox and Apple Safari web browsers. Researchers from the Synacktiv Team were able to remotely start the windshield wipers, open the trunk, and flash the headlights of the vehicle. All six of these exploits used unique bugs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Computer hacking contest.
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