Minecraft is a sandbox video game developed by Mojang Studios. The game was created by Markus “Notch” Persson in the Java programming language. Following several early private testing versions, it was first made public in May before being fully released in November , with Notch stepping down and Jens “Jeb” Bergensten taking over development.
Minecraft has since been ported to several other platforms and is the best-selling video game of all time , with over million copies sold and nearly million monthly active users as of [update]. In Minecraft , players explore a blocky, procedurally generated 3D world with virtually infinite terrain and may discover and extract raw materials, craft tools and items, and build structures, earthworks , and simple machines.
Depending on game mode , players can fight computer-controlled mobs , as well as cooperate with or compete against other players in the same world. Game modes include a survival mode in which players must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health and a creative mode where players have unlimited resources and access to flight.
Players can modify the game to create new gameplay mechanics, items, and assets. Minecraft received critical acclaim, winning several awards and later being cited as one of the greatest video games of all time.
Social media, parodies, adaptations, merchandise, and the annual Minecon conventions played prominent roles in popularizing the game. The game has also been used in educational environments to teach chemistry , computer-aided design , and computer science. Several spin-offs have also been made, including Minecraft: Story Mode which has since been shut down on all platforms except Netflix , where only the first five episodes are available , Minecraft Dungeons , Minecraft Earth which has since also been shut down , and—in — Minecraft Legends.
Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no required goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game. The core gameplay revolves around picking up and placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move freely around the world. Players can “mine” blocks and then place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things.
The game world is virtually infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed that is obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation or manually specified by the player. Due to technical problems when extremely distant locations are reached, however, there is a barrier preventing players from traversing to locations beyond 30,, blocks from the center. When starting a new world, players must choose one of five game modes, as well as one of four difficulties, ranging from peaceful to hard.
Increasing the difficulty of the game causes the player to take more damage from mobs , as well as having other difficulty-specific effects. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile mobs from spawning , and the hard difficulty allows players to starve to death if their hunger bar is depleted. New players have a randomly selected default character skin of either Steve or Alex,  but the option to create custom skins was made available in They spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs—including large spiders, skeletons , and zombies —spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves.
Minecraft has two alternative dimensions besides the overworld the main world : the Nether and the End. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island. In survival mode, players have to gather natural resources such as wood and stone found in the environment in order to craft certain blocks and items. Health replenishes when players have a nearly full hunger bar or continuously on peaceful difficulty.
Players can craft a wide variety of items in Minecraft. Some items have multiple tiers depending on the material used to craft them, with higher-tier items being more effective and durable.
Players can construct furnaces, which can cook food, process ores, and convert materials into other materials. The game has an inventory system, allowing players to carry a limited number of items.
Players then re-spawn at their spawn point, which by default is where players first spawn in the game, and can be reset by sleeping in a bed  or using a respawn anchor. Players may acquire experience points by killing mobs and other players, mining, smelting ores, breeding animals , and cooking food. Experience can then be spent on enchanting tools, armor and weapons. Hardcore mode is a survival mode variant that is locked to the hardest setting and has permadeath.
In creative mode, players have access to nearly all resources and items in the game through the inventory menu, and can place or remove them instantly. Adventure mode was designed specifically so that players could experience user-crafted custom maps and adventures. This forces players to obtain the required items and experience adventures in the way that the map maker intended. Spectator mode allows players to fly through blocks and watch gameplay without directly interacting.
Players do not have an inventory, but can teleport to other players and view from the perspective of another player or creature.
Multiplayer in Minecraft enables multiple players to interact and communicate with each other on a single world. It is available through direct game-to-game multiplayer, LAN play, local split screen console-only , and servers player-hosted and business-hosted. Single-player worlds have local area network support, allowing players to join a world on locally interconnected computers without a server setup. Operators can also set up restrictions concerning which usernames or IP addresses are allowed or disallowed to enter the server.
The largest and most popular server is Hypixel , which has been visited by over 14 million unique players. In , Mojang announced Minecraft Realms , a server hosting service intended to enable players to run server multiplayer games easily and safely without having to set up their own.
Minecraft: Java Edition Realms server owners can invite up to twenty people to play on their server, with up to ten players online at a time. Minecraft Realms server owners can invite up to people to play on their server, with up to ten players online at one time.
On 31 July , Mojang released the beta version of the update allowing cross-platform play. The modding community consists of fans, users and third-party programmers.
Using a variety of application program interfaces that have arisen over time, they have produced a wide variety of downloadable content for Minecraft , such as modifications, texture packs and custom maps. Modifications of the Minecraft code, called mods , add a variety of gameplay changes, ranging from new blocks, new items, new mobs to entire arrays of mechanisms to craft.
While a variety of mod frameworks were independently developed by reverse engineering the code, Mojang has also enhanced vanilla Minecraft with official frameworks for modification, allowing the production of community-created resource packs, which alter certain game elements including textures and sounds. Data packs, introduced in version 1. The Xbox Edition supports downloadable content, which is available to purchase via the Xbox Games Store ; these content packs usually contain additional character skins.
In June , Mojang released an update known as the “Discovery Update” to the Bedrock version of the game. Before coming up with Minecraft , Markus “Notch” Persson was a game developer with King through March , at the time serving mostly browser games , during which he learnt a number of different programming languages. Infiniminer , a block-based open-ended mining game first released in April , sparked Persson’s inspiration for how to take “RubyDung” forward. The original edition of Minecraft , now known as the Java Edition , was first developed in May Persson released a test video on YouTube of an early version of Minecraft.
The first major update, dubbed Alpha , was released on 30 June These updates included new items, new blocks, new mobs, survival mode, and changes to the game’s behavior e.
On 11 December , Persson announced that Minecraft was entering its beta testing phase on 20 December Mojang moved the game out of beta and released the full version on 18 November Mojang was also approached by other companies including Activision Blizzard and Electronic Arts.
Since the first full release of Minecraft , dubbed the “Adventure Update”, the game has been continuously updated with many major updates, available for free to users who have already purchased the game. The original version of the game was renamed to Minecraft: Java Edition on 18 September to separate it from Bedrock Edition , which was renamed to just Minecraft by the Better Together Update. The Bedrock Edition has also been regularly updated, with these updates now matching the themes of Java Edition updates.
It was then released for several other compatible devices on 8 October An Xbox version of the game, developed by 4J Studios , was released on 9 May Versions of the game for the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 were released on 17 December and 4 September respectively. On 20 September , the Better Together Update was released on the Xbox One, Windows 10, VR, and mobile versions of the game, which used the Pocket Edition engine to enable cross-platform play between each of these versions.
This version of the game eventually became known as the Bedrock Edition. The PlayStation 4 version of Minecraft was updated in December and became part of the Bedrock edition, which enabled cross-platform play for users with a free Xbox Live account.
Minecraft: Education Edition is an educational version of the base game, designed specifically for use in educational establishments such as schools, and built off of the Bedrock codebase.
An initial beta test was carried out between 9 June and 1 November It was released to the App Store on 6 September On 20 May , Minecraft China was announced as a localized edition for China, where it was released under a licensing agreement between NetEase and Mojang.
The iOS version was released on 15 September , and the Android version was released on 12 October The edition is free-to-play, and had over million players by November Minecraft for Windows is exclusive to Microsoft’s Windows 10 and Windows 11 operating systems. The beta release for Windows 10 launched on the Windows Store on July 29, After nearly one and a half years in beta, Microsoft fully released Minecraft for Windows on December 19, Called the “Ender Update,” this release implemented new features to this version of Minecraft like world templates and add-on packs.
Other features include the ability to use multiple control schemes such as a gamepad, keyboard, or touchscreen for Microsoft Surface and other touchscreen-enabled devices. Virtual reality support has been implemented, as well as the ability to record and take screenshots in-game via the Windows built-in GameDVR.
As of 7 June , the Java and Bedrock editions of Minecraft for Windows were merged into a single title for purchase; those who owned one version would automatically gain access to the other version. Both game modes would otherwise remain separate. Minecraft 4K is a simplified version of Minecraft similar to the Classic version that was developed for the Java 4K game programming contest “in way less than 4 kilobytes”. Players are restricted to placing or destroying blocks, which consist of grass, dirt, stone, wood, leaves, and brick.
Environmental hazards such as lava do not damage players, and some blocks function differently since their behavior was later changed during development. Around , prior to Minecraft ‘ s full release, there had been collaboration between Mojang and The Lego Group to make a Lego brick-based Minecraft game to be called Brickcraft. This would have modified the base Minecraft game to use Lego bricks, which meant adapting the basic 1×1 block to account for larger pieces typically used in Lego sets.
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